Macro photography is often confused with close up photography. However they are different in the way they are photographed.
A close up is an image that usually fills the frame on the camera but is not usually shot 1:1.
Examples of close ups are:
The difference is as a macro you would only see a part of these images. Not to be confused with cropping of course.
Here are some samples of floral macro's
A closer macro would be shot at 2:1 . Meaning that the object is photographed at 2 times its actual size.
Even closer would be 3:1 and even more, such as full frame lady bugs, etc...
Or even closer. Something could be photographed with a microscope.
A macro image can be an object also.
A macro can be human too.
There are lots of different ways to achieve a true macro image.
A macro lens is probably the easiest way. However most can only achieve 1:1 and are quite costly.
Macro extension tubes are probably the most popular.
Filters are an inexpensive way also.
The reverse lens technique is popular.
Macro bellows are an old but good way also. :thumb171858795:
So now that you know what a macro image is go out and experiment!